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高考英语阅读理解解题技巧和经典题型

2020-09-19 23:58:43 标题分类:经典散文 关键词:高考,英语,阅读理解,解题,技巧,经典,题型 阅读:332

  1、浏览的方法可以使用以下几种:

  (1)跳读:就是快速的一步浏览法。实际上是有挑选浏览,找关键词。用这类浏览方法答复who、what、when、where之类的成绩最为有用。

  (2)略读:指比跳读慢些的二步浏览法。即泛泛地、大略地快速浏览,目标是分析粗心,对作品有个总的概念。此种浏览方法能答复why、how之类的成绩。

  (3)精读:即最过细、最慢的深层浏览方法,目标是求得对所读作品的全数意义的明白与掌握。

  2、在使用浏览方法时尽大概做到以下几点:

  (1)带着成绩浏览漫笔。

  (2)找出主题句、肯定中央思惟。

  (3)揣摸单词、语句和作品的寄义。

  (4)尽快挑选谜底。

  二、差别文体作品的特点

  1、记叙文

  记叙文又可分传记类和故事类。

  传记类作品在浏览中时候是全文的关键,依照时候我们可以找到相干的事宜,捉住作品的次要内容。

  故事类作品情节性较强,浏览时要留意故事中的时候、地点、人物和发作的事宜,这些都是作品中的次要内容和信息,关于精确明白作品非常关键。

  2、申明文

  申明文是对事物的外形、性子、特点、效果或功用等实行引见,诠释或论述的作品。掌握所申明事物的特点和素质是明白申明文的关键。申明事物特点的方法很多,次要有界说法、诠释法、对照法、比方法、数字法、图表法、引用法和举例法等。

  (1)数字申明文

  在浏览数字申明文时要非常留意文中数字的寄义,从这些数字中可以找到作品的次要内容。

  (2)诠释申明文

  诠释申明文偏重申明事物的素质、特点和功用等。很多科普作品都属于这一类。在浏览这类作品时要学会处理what, how, why 等一类的成绩。它们是作品的关键。如能带着这些成绩浏览,将会更敏捷捉住作品的主题。

  (3)对照申明文

  对照申明文是经过对照方法申明成绩。在浏览这类作品时要擅长掌握全篇报告的基本偏向。作者在评论一个有争议的成绩时总要顾及到争议的各个方面。可是,在通常情形下,作者的报告总要偏向于某一种观念。

  3、应用文

  应用文触及的局限对照广,包孕告白、关照、手札等。应用文通常言语简约,省略及不范例的语句较多。浏览时通常请求考生周全掌握作品中供应的信息,并使用这些信息去处理成绩。于是对题干的明白尤其关键。

  浏览明白的考题分为客观明白题(是指在漫笔中客观存在的究竟,客观信息的谜底通常都可以在原文中找到。即明白文中的详细究竟或笼统概念)和主观明白题(这类成绩都弗成能间接从原文中找到谜底,须经过浏览作品对作品大旨和深层寄义有更深明白,并据此实行判断和推理)。

  当中细节明白题和推测词义题属于客观题;大旨粗心题和推理判断题属于主观题。

  针对差别范例的题目成绩,要在日常的练习历程中,联合详细的题目成绩,给门生实行解题方法的指点和解说。关于客观题,要提示他们浏览时存眷作品的细节,如时候,地点或一些详细数字,在挑选谜底时,务必从原文中找到切实的根据。

  三、解题方法

  我们可将浏览明白归纳为以下四大题型,依照浏览明白题考核角度的差别,可采取差别的解题方法来对付。

  1、究竟细节题

  属于细节范例的浏览明白题通常只针对某个特定的细节,题型可以多种多样。此类题型通常分两种。

  第一种是间接明白题,在原文中可以间接找到谜底。第二种是词义转换题,精确选项是原文有关词语和语句的转换。

  做此类试题肯定要捉住事宜发作的时候、地点、人物、生长历程和了局等环节,所选谜底肯定要契合原文,切弗成望文生义。这类题型的次要提问体式格局常为:

  ①Which of the following is true/NOT true in the passage?

  ②Which of the following statements is NOT discussed/mentioned in the passage?

  ③Which is the right order of the events given in the passage?

  ④All the following statements are NOT true except .

  细节题的破解通常采取寻读法,即先看试题,再读作品。对有关信息实行快速定位,再将相干信息实行整合、鉴别、分析、对照,有根有据地清扫干扰项,选出精确谜底。此法增强了浏览的针对性,进步了做题的精确率,节约了贵重的时候。寻读法还非常合用于对图形表格类题材的明白。

  做此范例的题目成绩还要非常留意语句的逻辑关系。英语中有很多功用词,如:表因果关系的because, since, as等;表迁移关系的but, however ,on the contrary, on the other hand等等。

  2、推测词义题

  在高考浏览题中,考生碰到的最大停滞每每有两个:一是被已熟悉的单词的某一熟知寄义所误导;二是被完全不熟悉的单词的意义所拦阻,从而产生明白偏向或明白难题,影响浏览的速率。

  实在处理这两个难题的一个关键宝贝是考生在心目中树立起上下文观念,要学会"顺藤摸瓜",经过构词,语法,界说,同位,对照,因果,常识,上下文等线索肯定词义。在浏览解题时要留意从以下七个方面开始:

  (1)依照界说或诠释、申明推测生词的词义

  在be,be called,call等判断词产生的判断句中,或定语从句及标点符号,可以依照已知部份,推测生词的寄义。比方:The herdsman, who looks after sheep, earns about 650 yuan a year.经过明白定语从句的意义,能猜出herdsman是“牧人”。

  (2)依照对照关系推测生词的词义

  在but,however,yet,otherwise,though这些示意意义迁移的连词产生的语句中,其前后的词有明明对照关系,依照已知的内容,经过这类对照关系,就很轻易猜出生词的词义了。比方:Though Tom’s face has been washed quite clean, his neck still remains grubby. 和clean意义相对的就是“邋遢的”了,于是可猜出句中grubby的意义是“邋遢的”。

  (3)经过因果关系推测词义

  because, since与as是毗邻缘由状语从句的附属连词,so是毗邻示意了局的状语从句的连词,so...that与such...that中的that是毗邻了局状语从句的。当这些信息词出如今有生词的语句中,经过因果关系,根据已知部份就能猜出生词的词义。比方:She wanted the hairdresser to trim her hair a bit because it was too long. 依照because从句所讲的意义,我们就可推测trim就是“修剪”之意。

  (4)依照糊口常识推测词义

  使用逻辑推理才能,本身的糊口履历及糊口常识。再联络上下文能读懂的部份,可以精确猜出词义。比方:Most of the roses are beginning to wither because of the cold. 依照语句意义及糊口履历,wither示意“枯萎”。

  (5)依照平等关系推测词义

  平等关系,指的是一个词,一组词或短语在句中作统一身分,并且它们的词义都属于统一领域。明明的标记是,如此的词组或短语中央常使用并列连词and或or来毗邻。比方:At forty-two he was in his prime and always full of energy. 从“年纪42岁”以及与prime具有平等关系的full of energy可以猜出prime的意义是“盛年期间”。

  (6)依照枚举的事例推测词义

  You can take any of the periodicals: “The World of English”. “Foreign Language Teaching in Schools”, or “English Learning”. 从前面枚举的例子中,可以猜出periodical是“期刊,杂志”的意义。

  (7)依照构词法常识推测词义

  依照学过的构词法常识,晓得词根和前缀或后缀的意义,就可猜出由它们构成的新词词义。比方在2006年福建的高考题作品中有如此一句:

  The schools are reluctant to take off — even teachers with tickets for the England-Argentina game had trouble getting the day off.

   C. free 【解题思绪】经过破折号可知精确谜底为B.

  3、推理判断题

  做这类题请求考生在浏览明白团体语篇的同时,又请求门生对作者的立场、企图及作品细节的生长作精确的推理判断,力图从作者的角度去斟酌,不要固守本身的见解或观念。不要主观臆断,平空设想,随意率性施展,而走入误区。

  门生要学会使用主题句去推测、推测笔墨背后作者的企图,使用归纳、对照、归纳妙技,使用后台常识去发掘作品深层寄义,从而精确明白作者的弦外之音,同时卖力领会作品的语气与情感基调(如:否认、讨厌、反问、讪笑等)。这类试题常以以下句式提问:

  ①What can you conclude/ imply from this passage?

  ②What’s the author’s attitude(立场)towards...?

  ③We can infer /learn from the passage that...

  如:Once there was something wrong with a machine in a factory. The workers could do nothing but turn to a German engineer for help, who drew a line on it and said, “Take off the part where the line is and change it for a new one. ”The machine, with a new line on, began running well again. The engineer then asked for $ 30,000 for what he had done. The following were what he wrote on a bill, “The new part only costs one dollar, and knowing where the problem with the machine is costs $ 29,999.”

  Q: What can you conclude from this passage?

  A. the engineer asked for too much money

  B. the workers should pay the money

  C. the knowledge is worth money

  D. the new part could cost more

  这篇漫笔是作者讲的一个故事,那末经过这个故事我们可以判断出甚么呢?尽管作者没有言明,可是我们可以判断,发明成绩的地点需求伶俐和常识,常识是发明代价的源泉,于是此题的精确谜底应为C。

  4、大旨粗心题

  这类题型请求考生可以掌握作品的整体,并真正明白主题和中央;请求能较好地使用综合、判断、归纳、推理等逻辑思维方法解题,难度较大,属于高层次题。

  通常大旨粗心题可以分为两类:

  (1)肯定作品的题目和主题

  题目位于作品之首,用来高度综合作品内容,点明作品主题。它可以是单词,短语,也可以是语句。

  要肯定作品题目,开始,要在浏览原文的基本上,斟酌题目能否与主题亲切相干;其次,看题目能否能综合全文内容。不克不及只综合漫笔中的某些究竟或细节;然后,要留意题目局限不应太大或太小;最终,题目应精练并能迷惑读者。即:1、奇特新奇 2、综合性强 3、短小精辟。

  常见的题目型题干:

  ①The best title/ headline for this passage might be________.

  ②The text (passage) could be entitled ______.

  ③What is the best title for the passage?

  ④What’s the topic of the article?

  如:In the 1930s, a lot of people in the USA were out of work. Among these people was a man named Alfred Butts. He always had an interest in word games and to fill his time he planned a game which he called “Lexico”.

  However, he was not completely satisfied with the game, so he made a number of changes to it and changed its name from “ Lexico” to “Alph” and then to “Criss Cross”. He wanted to make some money from his new game but he didn’t have any real commercial(商业性的)success.

  Q: The text is mainly about________.

  A. Lexico B. Three men C . A word game D. Alfred Butts.

  【解题思绪】谜底A 和C以偏概全。于是此题的精确谜底应为D。

  (2)主题句(topic sentence)及大旨粗心(main idea)的综合

  一篇作品通常表达一个中央内容或主题。这个中央内容或主题通使用一个语句来综合。此句叫做主题句。

  通常来说,申明文合同论文都有主题句,并且多位于作品的开首,偶然也位于作品的中央或末端。但偶然不克不及在文中间接找到主题句,请求读者掌握每段的主题句,弄清段于段之间逻辑关系的基本上本身归纳总结。

  主题句必需能简约明了地综合全文的次要内容,具有高度的综合性和综合性。作品或段落的其他语句都是对主题句的进一步诠释,申明,论证或扩大。

  常见的主题句和大旨型题干:

  ①What is the topic sentence of the passage?

  ②This article/text/passage mainly tells that _____________.

  ③Which of the following gives a general idea of the passage?

  ④Which of the following is the main idea of the passage?

  如:Joshua Bingham studied 4 years at the University of Paris and decided to leave his graduation. He transferred to the University of Berlin and graduated with honors. Harvard Law School and, later, Boston College provided him with an excellent legal background. He is presently a corporation lawyer in Miami, Florida.

  Q: What is the main idea of the passage?

  A. How Joshua Bingham became a lawyer.

  B. Bingham is a diligent student.

  C. Joshua Bingham received an excellent education.

  D. A good lawyer needs good education.

  【解题思绪】 此文没有主题句。全篇共四句,只报告了四个细节(detail)性的究竟。于是就谜底本身看,个个都对。读者只能将所有的details综合起来,实行逻辑推理,才能构成一个没有言明的主题思惟(unstated main idea)。因为文中次要触及了Joshua Bingham接管教诲的情形,即作者想告知我们的是:Joshua Bingham接管过精良的教诲,以是谜底是 C。

  总之,浏览水准的进步不是一两天的浏览就可以生效的。想要进步浏览才能,一是要提拔精良的浏览举动风俗;如:要用目光看,不要用手指去点;要默读,不要小声读。

  二是要积聚大批的辞汇,把浏览中的高频难词熟记,每次浏览后要整顿好生词,然后记着其意义。

  三是要普遍地做课后浏览,保持天天读1-2篇作品。

  四是不要一碰到生词就查字典,要先猜其意义,等做完题目成绩后再查字典,免得影响浏览速率。

  四、基本练习

  1、故事类

  Mr. Lang worked in a factory. As a driver, he was busy but he was paid much. His wife was an able woman and did all the housework. When he came back, she took good care of him and he never did anything at home. So he had enough time when he had a holiday. A few friends of his liked gambling(赌钱) and he learned it soon. So he was interested in it and hardly forgot anything except gambling. He lost all his money and later he began to sell the television, watches and so on. His wife told him not to do it but he didn’t listen to her. She had to tell the police. He and his friends were punished for it. And he was hardly sent away. After he came out of lockup(拘留所), he hated her very much and the woman had to leave him.

  It was New Year’s Day. Mr. Lang didn’t go to work. He felt lonely and wanted to gamble again. He called his friends and they came soon. But they were afraid the police would come. He told his five-year-old son to go to find out if there were the policemen outside. They waited for a long time and didn’t think the police would come and began to gamble. Suddenly opened the door and in came a few policemen.

  “I saw there weren’t any policemen outside, daddy,” said the boy, “so I went to the crossing and asked some to come.”

  1. Mr. Lang was paid much because _______.

  A. he was a driver

  B. he worked in a factoryC. he had a lot of work to do

  D. he had worked there for a long time

  2. Mrs. Lang did all housework because _______.

  A. she couldn’t find any work

  B. she thought her husband was tiredC. her husband spent all time in gambling

  D. she wouldn’t stop her husband gambling

  3. _______, so he was put into lockup.

  A. Mr. Lang often gambled

  B. Mr. Lang was late for workC. Mr. Lang didn’t help his wife at home

  D. Mr. Lang wasn’t polite to the police

  4. The woman had to leave Mr. Lang because _______.

  A. he didn’t love her any longer

  B. he wouldn’t stop gamblingC. he had been put into lockup

  D. he was hardly sent away by the factory

  5. Which of the following is right?

  A. The boy hoped his father to be put into lockup The boy thought his father needed some The boy hoped his father to stop gambling The boy hoped his mother to come back.

  【谜底与剖析】本文讲一个赌棍想要赌钱,于是叫他的儿子把风,可他的儿子却把警员找来的故事。

  1. C。细节题。依照第1段第2句话 As a driver, he was busy but he was paid much 可知谜底为 C。

  2. B。揣摸题。依照第1段第3句话 His wife was an able woman and did all the housework. When he came back, she took good care of him and he never did anything at home 可知谜底为 B。

  3. A。揣摸题。依照 His wife told him not to do it but he didn’t listen to her. She had to tell the police 可知谜底为 A。

  4. A。细节题。依照 …he hated her very much and the woman had to leave him可知谜底为 A。

  5. B。语义明白题。依照最终一句话 I saw there weren’t any policeman outside, daddy, so I went to the crossing and asked some to come 可知谜底为 B。

  (2)教诲类

  Students in many countries are learning English. Some of these students are small children. Others are teen-agers. Many are adults. Some learn at school, others by themselves. A few learn English by learning the language over the radio, on TV, or in film. One must work hard to learn another language.

  Why do all these people want to learn English? It is difficult to answer this question. Many boys and girls learn English at school because it is one of their subjects required for study. They study their own language and maths and English: Some people learn it because it is useful for their work. Many people learn English for their work. Many people learn English for their higher studies, because at college or university some of their books are in English. Other people learn English because they want to read newspapers or magazines in English.

  1. People learn English _______.

  A. at school

  B. over the radio

  C. on TV

  D. not all in the same way

  2. Different kinds of people want to learn English _______.

  A. together with other subjects

  B. for different reas**C. for their work

  D. for higher studies at colleges

  3. From this passage we know that _______.

  A. we can learn English easily

  B. English is very difficult to learnC. English is learned by most people in the worldD. English is a useful language but one must work hard to learn

  4. Which of the following is right?

  A. We don’t need to learn any foreign We can do well in all our work without English is the most important subject in We should learn English because we need to face the world.

  【谜底与剖析】这篇作品探讨了练习英语高潮的征象和发作这类征象的缘由。

  1. D。由第1段我们可以晓得练习英语的情势可以over the radio, on TV, or in film等差别的体式格局。

  2. B。依照第2段人们练习英语的缘由有required for study, useful for their work, for high studies 等几种。由此可推知人们练习英语的缘由是差别的。

  3. D。因为人们练习英语的各类缘由可以发明英语长短常有用的。但从small children到adults(成年人)都用各类情势去学,申明英语必需靠人的勤奋才能学好。

  4. D。因为作品中说很多国度都练习英语,那末假如不练习英语就不克不及融入当代社会。以是练习英语的目标是we need to face the world(我们需求面临这个天下)。

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